Wednesday, November 4, 2015

Drawing and composition


Chapter 1 questions (please use complete sentences,punctuationgrammar ect.)

What is the advantage of using an easel rather than a drawing table or board when drawing from life?
What part of the body should be used for drawing, especially in the initial stages?
What kind of lamp is best for illuminating your drawing surface?
What are the differences between vine charcoal and compressed charcoal?
Name three tools you can use to blend or remove charcoal.
What designation indicates the softness of a graphite pencil?
Why is it important to take a break every so often from your drawing session?

Chapter 2
What is the effect of including outlines around the shapes of objects you draw?
How can you create the illusion of volume in a two-dimensional drawing?
Which is darker, the lightest tone of the shadow area or the darkest tone in the light area?
What makes some parts of the shadow areas lighter than other parts?
What are the four basic shapes?
What should always be the first step in making a drawing?
How can you use the sighting method to determine the relative size of two objects?
What is negative space and why is it important?

Chapter 3
What is the best way to see values accurately?
What is meant by “local color”? Give an example.
What is the first thing you should do when beginning the tonal stage of drawing?
Give two reasons for blocking in tones early in the drawing process.
How is the sphere unique among the basic shapes?
Describe a method for drawing a circle freehand.
What part of a sphere is closest to the viewer’s eye?
What is the shape of the cast shadow of a sphere?

Chapter 4
What are two effects of linear perspective that are important in drawing?
What is the horizon line?
When should you use one-point perspective in drawing a cube?
When should you use two-point perspective in drawing a cube?
What is the difference between one-point and two-point perspective?
What is the best way to determine the angles of the horizontal lines when drawing a cube in perspective?
What is a good way to check the shape of the top of a cube drawn in perspective?
How can you make the edges of a cube appear to come forward toward the viewer?

Chapter 5
What is the meaning of the term proportion?
What is the horizon plane?
How does the horizon plane help to unify your drawing?
How is a rectangular object similar to and different from a cubic object?
How is shading used to define the squareness of a rectangular object’s edges?
How can you make a cubic or rectangular object appear to sit firmly on its surface?

Chapter 6
What is elliptical perspective?
What is the appearance of a circle, such as the end of a cylinder, when it is seen from exactly eye level?
How is drawing a cylinder similar to drawing a sphere?
How is drawing a cylinder similar to drawing a cube?
What effect does linear perspective have on a cylinder lying on its side at an angle?
What is the first step in drawing a cylinder lying on its side at an angle?
What happens to the ellipses of a cylinder that is lying on its side at an angle?

Chapter 7 
Define foreground, middle ground, and background.
Name the four techniques you can use to create the illusion of space.
What is the effect of placing an object higher on the picture plane, closer to your eye level?
Which appears closer: an object with a greater range of values or an object with a smaller range of values?
Name the four basic shapes.
How can you keep the cones you draw from becoming lopsided?
How can you make a cone appear round?
What can you do to help you draw accurately the ellipse at the base of a cone that’s lying on its side?

Chapter 1 questions (please use complete sentences,punctuationgrammar ect.)

What is the advantage of using an easel rather than a drawing table or board when drawing from life?
What part of the body should be used for drawing, especially in the initial stages?
What kind of lamp is best for illuminating your drawing surface?
What are the differences between vine charcoal and compressed charcoal?
Name three tools you can use to blend or remove charcoal.
What designation indicates the softness of a graphite pencil?
Why is it important to take a break every so often from your drawing session?

Chapter 2
What is the effect of including outlines around the shapes of objects you draw?
How can you create the illusion of volume in a two-dimensional drawing?
Which is darker, the lightest tone of the shadow area or the darkest tone in the light area?
What makes some parts of the shadow areas lighter than other parts?
What are the four basic shapes?
What should always be the first step in making a drawing?
How can you use the sighting method to determine the relative size of two objects?
What is negative space and why is it important?

Chapter 3
What is the best way to see values accurately?
What is meant by “local color”? Give an example.
What is the first thing you should do when beginning the tonal stage of drawing?
Give two reasons for blocking in tones early in the drawing process.
How is the sphere unique among the basic shapes?
Describe a method for drawing a circle freehand.
What part of a sphere is closest to the viewer’s eye?
What is the shape of the cast shadow of a sphere?

Chapter 4
What are two effects of linear perspective that are important in drawing?
What is the horizon line?
When should you use one-point perspective in drawing a cube?
When should you use two-point perspective in drawing a cube?
What is the difference between one-point and two-point perspective?
What is the best way to determine the angles of the horizontal lines when drawing a cube in perspective?
What is a good way to check the shape of the top of a cube drawn in perspective?
How can you make the edges of a cube appear to come forward toward the viewer?

Chapter 5
What is the meaning of the term proportion?
What is the horizon plane?
How does the horizon plane help to unify your drawing?
How is a rectangular object similar to and different from a cubic object?
How is shading used to define the squareness of a rectangular object’s edges?
How can you make a cubic or rectangular object appear to sit firmly on its surface?

Chapter 6
What is elliptical perspective?
What is the appearance of a circle, such as the end of a cylinder, when it is seen from exactly eye level?
How is drawing a cylinder similar to drawing a sphere?
How is drawing a cylinder similar to drawing a cube?
What effect does linear perspective have on a cylinder lying on its side at an angle?
What is the first step in drawing a cylinder lying on its side at an angle?
What happens to the ellipses of a cylinder that is lying on its side at an angle?

Chapter 7 
Define foreground, middle ground, and background.
Name the four techniques you can use to create the illusion of space.
What is the effect of placing an object higher on the picture plane, closer to your eye level?
Which appears closer: an object with a greater range of values or an object with a smaller range of values?
Name the four basic shapes.
How can you keep the cones you draw from becoming lopsided?
How can you make a cone appear round?
What can you do to help you draw accurately the ellipse at the base of a cone that’s lying on its side?

Chapter 8
Define composition in still-life drawing.
Name the three basic principles of composition described in this chapter.
Why is it important to place the objects in a still-life composition close together?
What is an implied line?
Name three ways to establish a particular object as the focal point of your drawing.
What is the first step in deciding whether a composition is visually balanced?
Name three aspects that help determine the visual weight of a drawn object.
Why is asymmetrical balance more visually pleasing than symmetrical balance?
What should you do to ensure that the complex objects you draw don’t turn out lopsided?

Chapter 9
Define drapery.
What is the function of drapery in a still-life composition?
Which of the basic shapes is created by hanging fabric that has not been creased?
Which of the basic shapes is created by creased fabric?
What is the recommended way to begin a drawing of a dark piece of drapery, after establishing the basic shape of the piece of fabric as a whole?
How can you tell if the texture of the fabric you’re looking at is reflective?
At what point in your drawing should you render any pattern in the fabric?

Chapter11
What is the first step in drawing an object made of glass or other transparent material?
What is the effect of the curvature of a glass surface on the appearance of objects seen from behind the glass?
In addition to being able to see the objects behind a glass object, what else can you see in a glass vessel such as a wineglass that you would not be able to see in a glass made of an opaque material such as metal?
How is the surface of glass like and unlike the surface of polished metal?
What should you do differently when you are drawing colored glass from when you are  drawing clear glass?
What is the effect of a clear liquid such as water on objects seen through it?
How is a nearly opaque liquid such as milk different from a clear liquid such as water?

Chapter 13
Which of the four basic shapes predominates in the human figure?
How many heads high is the average or ideal human figure when standing?
What is the midpoint of the average human figure when standing?
What are the two basic shapes found in the hands and feet?
What is foreshortening?
In addition to knowledge of the ideal proportions of the head, what techniques are used to capture an accurate likeness?
What tools can you use to frame your landscape picture in order to block out the areas you don’t want to draw? 
Why must you work quickly to block in shadow areas when working outdoors?

What is the effect of including richly detailed texture in an area of your drawing?

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